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2017年10月19日 20:25:27 | 作者:华大全 | 来源:新华社
Chinese personal-computer giant Lenovo Group Ltd. says its unprofitable smartphone business will become an engine for its growth. But some analysts think the company should concentrate on its PC business, instead of getting distracted by smartphones.中国个人电脑生产巨头联想集团(Lenovo Group Ltd.)表示,该公司目前尚未盈利的智能手机业务将成为其增长引擎。但是一些分析人士认为,该公司应该专注于个人电脑业务,不应该在智能手机业务上分散精力。In the global PC market, Lenovo is close to becoming the largest player. Research firm IDC estimated Lenovo#39;s market share by shipment was the second largest in the world at 15.7% in the quarter through September, slightly behind Hewlett-Packard Co. HPQ -1.52%#39;s 15.9%. While overall PC shipments declined 8.6% in that quarter, Lenovo#39;s shipments grew 10%, according to IDC. This week, Lenovo reported that its net profit for the fiscal second quarter through September rose 13%, while revenue grew 11%.Lenovo联想平板电脑:ThinkPad Tablet 2在全球个人电脑市场,联想已接近坐上头把交椅。研究机构国际数据公司(IDC)估计,在截至今年九月底的这一季度,以发货量计,联想的市场份额为15.7%,排全球第二位,略低于惠普公司的15.9%。根据IDC的数据,尽管该季度全球个人电脑的总发货量下降了8.6%,联想的发货量仍然增长了10%。联想上周宣布,在截至九月底的第二财政季度,该公司的净利润增长了13%,收入增长了11%。If Lenovo is the PC market leader, why does it need to diversify?如果联想是个人电脑市场的领头羊,它为什么还需要使业务多样化呢?One possible answer is that the PC industry has little room for growth. The idea that tablets are eating into PC sales is true to some extent in the U.S. and other developed markets where most people aly own PCs. Still, in many emerging markets in Asia, Latin America, the Middle East and Africa, people are still buying their first PC.一个可能的原因是,个人电脑行业的增长空间已经所剩无几。在美国和其他发达国家市场,平板电脑正在抢夺个人电脑市场的说法一定程度上是确实存在的。在这些市场,大多数人已经拥有个人电脑。不过,在亚洲、拉丁美洲、中东和非洲的许多新兴市场,人们仍然在购买自己的第一台个人电脑。In a CLSA survey of consumers in China, India and Indonesia released last month, respondents considered PCs a necessity, but not tablets.里昂券(CLSA)上个月对中国、印度和印度尼西亚的消费者进行的一项调查显示,受访者认为个人电脑是必需品,平板电脑则不是。Lenovo Chief Executive Yang Yuanqing said this week that the company#39;s PC business has room for growth in emerging markets where PC penetration is still low. Its recent acquisition of Brazil#39;s CCE was the latest effort to increase its presence in emerging markets outside China.联想集团首席执行长杨元庆最近表示,该公司的个人电脑业务在个人电脑渗透率仍然较低的新兴市场存在增长空间。联想集团最近收购了巴西的CCE公司,这是联想集团在中国以外新兴市场扩大业务规模的最新尝试。Meanwhile, the company has been spending more on its mobile device business. Last year, it created a new business unit that focuses mainly on smartphones and tablets. Earlier this year, it announced plans to spend 0 million to build a new base in China for production and development of mobile products.同时,联想在移动设备业务方面进行了更多投资。去年,联想新设立了一个专注于智能手机和平板电脑业务的部门。今年早些时候,联想宣布了斥资8亿美元在中国新建一个移动产品生产和开发基地的计划。Mr. Yang said this week that the company expects its money-losing smartphone business in China to become profitable in two to three quarters.杨元庆最近表示,该公司预计其在中国的智能手机业务将在两到三个季度之后扭亏为盈。Still, some analysts say Lenovo#39;s recent focus on the smartphone business is distracting the company from efforts to tap potential PC demand in emerging markets. While Lenovo#39;s PC business can continue to benefit from economies of scale, it#39;s unclear how its smartphones can become competitive globally, they say.尽管如此,一些分析人士说,联想最近对智能手机业务的重视使其无法集中精力开发新兴市场对个人电脑的潜在需求。尽管联想的个人电脑业务可以继续从规模效益中获益,目前还不清楚其智能手机业务能否在全球拥有竞争力。#39;Lenovo should focus on selective emerging markets and try to expand their PC business in those markets,#39; said Sanford Bernstein analyst Alberto Moel.Sanford Bernstein Ltd.的高级分析师默尔(Alberto Moel) 说,联想应该专注于一些优选的新兴市场,努力在这些市场扩大个人电脑业务。Lenovo#39;s smartphone push is a risky bet in terms of earnings. While the handset business may contribute to revenue, its profitability remains uncertain.联想进军智能手机业务的努力在盈利方面存在风险。尽管手机业务可能会为营收带来增长,其盈利能力仍然存在不确定性。The mobile market may be a goldmine for Apple Inc. AAPL +1.73% and Samsung Electronics Co. 005930.SE -0.07%, but fat margins exist only in the high-end segment dominated by the iPhone and Samsung#39;s flagship Galaxy models, said Nicolas Baratte, head of CLSA#39;s Asia Pacific technology research. Most other handset makers are locked in a cutthroat price battle that leaves very thin margins. #39;It#39;s a very, very tough market#39; for newcomers, said Mr. Baratte.里昂券(CLSA)亚太科技产业研究部主管巴拉特(Nicolas Baratte)说,手机市场可能仍然是苹果(Apple Inc.)和三星公司(Samsung Electronics Co.)的利润来源,但这一市场只在由iPhone和三星Galaxy系列手机主导的高端领域才有丰厚利润。巴拉特说,大多数其他手机制造商都卷入了激烈的价格战,导致它们的利润率非常低。巴拉特说,对于新的参与者来说,这是一个非常残酷的市场。While Lenovo is a widely recognized brand in China, it faces fierce competition in the country#39;s crowded mobile market from other Chinese handset makers like Huawei Technologies Co. and ZTE Corp. 000063.SZ +1.07%, which are also trying to offer more smartphones with higher price tags in addition to low-end models.尽管联想在中国是一个受到广泛认可的品牌,它在中国竞争激烈的手机市场面临着来自华为(Huawei Technologies Co.)和中兴(ZTE Corp.)等公司的激烈竞争,除了低端机型,这些公司也在努力推出更多售价更高的手机。Outside China, where the Lenovo brand isn#39;t as strong, challenges are even greater. Lenovo recently started selling smartphones in India, Indonesia, Vietnam and the Philippines, and the company plans to expand into more emerging markets.在中国之外,联想品牌的影响力没那么强大,它面临的挑战也更加严峻。联想最近开始在印度、印度尼西亚、越南和菲律宾销售智能手机,此外,联想还计划将智能手机业务扩大到更多新兴市场国家。Lenovo#39;s smartphone strategy #39;would make more sense if the company were concentrating on the Chinese market,#39; says Mr. Moel.默尔说,如果联想专注于中国市场,其智能手机策略将会更富有成效。In China, Lenovo can at least take advantage of its brand, but the environment will be much tougher in other markets, he said.他说,在中国,联想至少可以利用其品牌上的优势,但是在其他市场,联想面临的环境可能会艰难得多。 /201211/208797FOR decades, the overuse of antibiotics has encouraged the evolution of drug-resistant bacteria which, though they have never broken out and caused an epidemic in the way that was once feared, have nevertheless been responsible for many deaths that might otherwise have been avoided. Now something similar seems to be happening in agriculture. The overuse of drugs against parasitic worms which infest stock animals means that these, too, are becoming drug-resistant. That is bad for the animals#39; health and welfare, and equally bad for farmers#39; profits.几十年来,广泛使用抗生素促进了耐药病菌的进化。尽管它们从来没有失控,爆发人们一度为止恐惧的大规模瘟疫,但还是造成了大量本来可以避免的死亡。现在畜牧业中似乎也有类似现象。人们对家畜身上的寄生虫过分使用药物,这让它们也有了抗药性。这对动物的健康与安乐绝非好事,同样也会减少饲养它们的农民的利润。This, at least, is the conclusion drawn by Ray Kaplan, a parasitologist at the University of Georgia who has just published a review of research on the problem. His results, which appear in Veterinary Parasitology, make grim ing.这至少是乔治亚大学(University of Georgia)寄生虫病学家雷?卡普兰(Ray Kaplan)在他最近发表的有关这一问题的研究综述中得出的结论。他发表在《兽医寄生虫学》(Veterinary Parasitology)上的文章读来让人心情沉重。Sheep and goats are the worst affected. Studies in Australia, Brazil and the ed States suggest that animals in half or more of farms in many parts of those countries are infested with drug-resistant worms. In some cases the parasites are resistant to every drug that can be thrown at them. The proportion of infested farms is lower in New Zealand, a country that has a huge population of sheep, but even there it is rising at a worrying rate.绵羊与山羊受的影响最大。在澳大利亚、巴西和美国所做的研究表明,在这些国家的许多地区,一半或更多的农场中的家畜身上有耐药寄生虫。有些农场的寄生虫对所有可用药物有抗药性。新西兰的农场饲养着大量绵羊,它们受到影响的比例比较低;但即使在该国,受影响农场比例的增长速度还是令人担心。Cattle, too, are afflicted. Dr Kaplan cites work done in Argentina, Brazil and New Zealand. And horses suffer as well, with resistant worms turning up in both America and Europe.家牛也身受其害。卡普兰士引用了在阿根廷、巴西和新西兰所做的研究工作。马也是受害者,美国与欧洲的马身上都发现了抗药寄生虫。The root of the problem is what Dr Kaplan refers to as ;global worming;-giving drugs prophylactically to all livestock rather than reserving them for use as a treatment when an animal actually becomes infested. It is common sense, of course, to try to prevent infestation rather than merely treating it once it has arisen.问题的根源是卡普兰士称为;全球防虫;的现象——预防性地对所有家畜用药,而不是在动物身上真正出现了寄生虫时投药治疗。当然,防病胜于治病是常识。Unfortunately, such promiscuous use of drugs is the best way to put selection pressure on the worms and encourage the evolution of resistant strains.不幸的是,这样的预防性用药是在寄生虫身上施加选择压力的最佳方法,能够促进抗药品种的进化。What is needed, says Dr Kaplan, is more selective drug use, and better management. Worms are not evenly distributed. Instead, a minority of animals play host to most of them. Aiming treatment at those animals would reduce the likelihood of resistance emerging without harming a farmer#39;s ability to control infestations. Better husbandry might help, too. Not grazing so many animals on a given patch of land would discourage transmission.卡普兰士认为,现在需要做的是加强管理与更有选择性地用药。寄生虫并非均匀寄生在各种动物身上。有少数动物是大多数寄生虫的寄主。集中治疗这些动物则会降低耐药性发生的可能性,同时也不会损害农民控制虫害的能力。改进饲养方法或许也有益处。不在一块草地上过量放牧动物会减轻虫害传播。That, though, would bring problems of its own, as it would reduce the number of animals which could be raised on a given farm. Which leads to the nub of the issue: it is hard to work out exactly how much damage resistant worms are doing, and thus how much effort should be put into trying to stop the sp of resistance-not least because, as Dr Kaplan found out when he conducted his survey, the data are pretty sporadic. But they are worrying enough to be worth following up, for if resistance did get out of hand the consequences could be very expensive indeed.但这本身也会带来问题,因为这会减少一座农场能饲养的家畜数目。这就引出了问题的症结:人们很难确定抗药寄生虫会造成多大的危害,因此也不知道该花多少代价来阻止抗药性蔓延,因为很重要的是,卡普兰士在纵观研究结果时发现有关数据相当零散。但这些数据还是很令人忧虑,值得进一步跟踪,因为一旦人们无法控制抗药性,就确实可能会付出惨重的代价。No one farmer is to blame. This is a tragedy of the commons, in which sensible individual decisions have led to a collective difficulty. But it might behove farmers to think more about how they use anti-worm drugs. If they do not, they may find that those drugs have become useless.无法就此责备某个农民。这是一个公地悲剧 [注],许多明智的个人决定导致了群体的困难。但或许农民们有责任多想想他们应该如何使用抗寄生虫药物。如果放弃这一责任,他们或许有一天会发现这些药物变得全然无用。 /201208/193576Xiaomi Inc., the startup that has rocked Chinese smartphone market, is looking to leverage the global footprint of Asias richest man, Li Ka-shing, and his telecommunications empire to further expand in overseas markets.震动了中国智能手机市场的初创企业小米公司(Xiaomi Inc.)正打算利用亚洲首富李嘉诚的全球影响力以及他的电信帝国进一步拓展海外市场。Xiaomi Global Vice President Hugo Barra, the former Google Inc. official who joined the Chinese company in October, said Xiaomi is looking at further collaboration with Li-controlled Hutchison Whampoa Ltd.#39;s telecom operations beyond Hong Kong, where it will launch the latest flagship smartphone Mi 3 with Li#39;s mobile carrier 3 Hong Kong on Wednesday.小米全球副总裁巴拉(Hugo Barra)说,小米计划与李嘉诚控制的和记黄埔有限公司(Hutchison Whampoa Ltd., 0013.HK)旗下的电信业务在香港之外进一步合作。本周三,小米将在香港与李嘉诚的无线运营商3香港(3 Hong Kong)合作发布最新旗舰智能手机小米3。巴拉曾担任谷歌(Google Inc.)安卓业务副总裁,去年10月加入小米公司。#39;We would love to partner with Hutch in other markets, for example, Indonesia and Vietnam where Xiaomi plans to roll out products in the coming months,#39; Barra said at a Tuesday event in Hong Kong. Xiaomi has been expanding into Singapore, Taiwan and Hong Kong as part of its plans to grow outside of mainland China, where its low-cost but advanced smartphones are gaining popularity.巴拉周二在香港的一次活动上说,小米希望与和记黄埔在其他市场合作,比如印尼和越南市场,小米打算未来几个月在这些市场推出自己的产品。小米已经在新加坡、台湾和香港扩张,这是该公司在中国内地以外市场实现增长的努力之一。在中国内地,小米公司价格低廉但性能先进的智能手机越来越受欢迎。Li is often referred to as #39;Superman#39; in Hong Kong because of his business prowess and track record in spotting trends. His business empire, Hutchison Whampoa, stretches from telecommunications to ports and hotels. Hutchison has operations in 52 countries and employs about 270,000 people worldwide. His global telecommunications unit 3 Group serves about 76 million users in markets including Italy, the U.K., Indonesia, Vietnam and Hong Kong. His 3 Group carries Samsung smartphones globally, as well as iPhones from Apple.在香港,李嘉诚以其商业影响力和对趋势的准确把握而享有“超人”的美誉。他的商业帝国和记黄埔涵盖了电信、码头和酒店等领域。和记黄埔在52个国家拥有业务,在全球有大约27万名雇员。李嘉诚的全球电信部门3集团(3 Group)为意大利、英国、印尼、越南和香港等国家和地区的7,600万名用户提供务。3集团在全球范围内销售三星(Samsung)的智能手机,也销售苹果(Apple)的iPhone。Li has also made a number of high-profile investments in technology companies in the past, most notably a million stake in Facebook Inc. in 2007 through Horizons Ventures, his personal technology investment arm. The private investment arm has also invested in music streaming service provider Spotify Ltd., Tel Aviv-based social traffic and navigation company Waze and newser app Summly.过去,李嘉诚也曾对科技公司进行过几次高调投资,其中最引人瞩目的是2007年通过其个人科技企业投资机构维港投资(Horizons Ventures)对Facebook Inc.投资6,000万美元。这一非上市的投资机构还曾投资流媒体音乐务供应商Spotify Ltd、位于特拉维夫的交通导航软件公司Waze以及新闻阅读应用软件Summly。Beijing-based Xiaomi has successfully created a big buzz in China by selling high-end phones for prices close to cost. Its latest flagship e Mi 3 phone costs 0, less than half the price of top models from Apple and Samsung Electronics. The closely-held company is well-known in China for releasing its phones for sale online in limited batches.总部位于北京的小米公司已经通过以接近成本价销售高端手机的方式成功地在中国内地制造了巨大的轰动效应。其最新款的旗舰手机小米3售价330美元,不到苹果和三星电子最高端型号价格的一半。在中国内地,少数人控股的小米公司以在线限量销售的发布方式闻名。Barra said Xiaomi has been struggling to make enough phones to meet demand and he has met with major supplier Foxconn Technology Group Chairman Terry Gou in Shenzhen to discuss the plan of increasing production lines to address the shortage issues.巴拉说,小米一直存在供不应求的问题,他已经与主要供应商富士康(Foxconn Technology Group)董事长郭台铭(Terry Gou)在深圳会面,讨论了增加生产线的计划,希望解决货源不足问题。He said both Foxconn and Taiwan-based Inventec. Corp. are the company#39;s handset contract manufacturers.他说,富士康和台湾的英业达(Inventec. Corp.)都是小米手机的代工商。Taiwan-based Foxconn, officially known as Hon Hai Precision Industry Co. , is also the major assembler of iPhones and iPads.总部位于台湾的富士康官方名称是鸿海精密工业股份有限公司(Hon Hai Precision Industry Co.),它也是iPhone和iPad的主要组装商。 /201403/280865

Google (GOOG) is currently making a tablet with advanced vision capabilities, according to the Wall Street Journal.根据《华尔街日报》(the Wall Street Journal)消息,谷歌(Google)正在开发一款拥有先进视觉功能的平板电脑。The company aims to build 4,000 prototype tablets with 7-inch screens next month. According to the report, the tablets will include two back cameras, infrared depth sensors and software to show three-dimensional images of objects.谷歌计划在下个月生产4,000台配有7英寸屏幕的平板电脑样机。报道称,这款平板电脑配备了两颗后置摄像头、红外深度感应器以及能够显示物体3D图像的软件。The technology could allow for the visually impaired to better navigate spaces inside and can also add to the experience of playing games.这项技术可以让视障人士更好地进行室内空间导航,此外还能改善视频游戏的体验。The group, which is called Project Tango, released a smartphone with similar capabilities in February. In a statement on the company#39;s site about the phone: ;Project Tango is an attempt to create a mobile device unlike like any other, a mobile device that shares our sense of space and movement, that understands and perceives the world the same way we do.;这个研发团体被称为Project Tango,他们在今年2月发布了一款拥有类似功能的智能手机。谷歌网站上关于这款手机有一份声明,其中写道:“Project Tango是我们的一次尝试,我们试图研发一款不同于任何其他设备的产品,希望它能够拥有我们的空间感和运动感,能够像我们一样理解和感知这个世界。”Facebook (FB) will become a Google competitor in the advanced vision technology space after its purchase of Oculus VR, which makes virtual reality headgear, for billion in March.Facebook在今年3月以20亿美元收购头戴式虚拟现实技术设备的制造商Oculus VR后,成为了谷歌在先进视觉技术领域的竞争者。Google plans to release tablets to developers in order to give them the opportunity to experiment and create applications.谷歌计划将平板电脑提供给开发商,让他们有机会进行体验,开发相关应用。A comment from Google was not immediately available.谷歌公司尚未就此发表。 /201405/301274

Agroup of leading authors, including Donna Tartt, Stephen King and Malcolm Gladwell, has attempted to intervene in the dispute between publisher Hachette and retailing behemoth Amazon. Observers of the music industry are familiar with this tactic; prominent musicians are persuaded that the interests of music publishers are aligned with their own. The reality is very different.包括唐娜#8226;塔特(Donna Tartt)、斯蒂芬#8226;金(Stephen King)以及马尔科姆#8226;格拉德威尔(Malcolm Gladwell)在内的一批知名作家试图干涉出版商阿歇特(Hachette)和零售业巨头亚马逊(Amazon)之间的争端。音乐产业的观察者对这套战术很熟悉,那些知名的音乐家们相信自己与音乐出版商的利益一致。然而实情非常不同。Music and print media are among the industries most fundamentally changed by digitisation. When Amazon likens the change to the arrival of the paperback, it makes a grave underestimation; the invention of printing is a better analogy. Costs and barriers to entry in distribution have almost disappeared.音乐和印刷媒体都是被数字化从根本上改变的行业。亚马逊把这种改变比作平装本的出现,实在是严重低估了数字化的影响;与印刷术的发明相提并论还更贴切些。分销的成本和进入壁垒几乎已荡然无存。Established companies in all industries are inhibited in their response to radical change by vested interests inherent in their existing business models. Music publishers tried to block new technologies, and were marginalised by better-run businesses:各行各业的公司在回应巨变时,都难免受到现有商业模式中的既得利益的桎梏。音乐出版商曾企图阻止新技术,结果被苹果(Apple)、沃尔玛(Walmart)和Spotify等运营更好的企业边缘化。图书出版商最初在回应电子书时,最初拿出了纸质书的拙劣复制品。当这些书销量不佳时,他们便退而维护现状。Apple, Walmart and Spotify. Book publishers responded initially with dismal reproductions on screen of their printed books. When these failed to sell, they retired into protecting the status#8201;quo.改变游戏规则的是硬件制造商,他们生产出了阅读体验可与纸质媲美的显示屏。很快这些显示屏的阅读体验将更好。而亚马逊的配送能力使其能够挑战出版商的顽固反抗。The game changer was the ability of hardware manufacturers to produce displays that provide a ing experience almost as pleasant as the printed page. Soon they will be better. Amazon’s distribution capability enabled it to challenge publishers’ recalcitrance.图书出版商的地位一直建立在对分销渠道的准入控制之上。有抱负的作者一贯以“发表作品”为理想。图书出版公司除了决定要出版哪本图书,传统上还提供一系列配套务:对底层文学事业的鉴定、持和资助,手稿的编辑,终稿作品的营销和推广。The role of the book publisher has been based on control of access to channels of distribution. The ambition of the aspirant author has always been to “get published”. Along with the decision as to what should be published, the company has traditionally provided a collection of associated services: identification, support and finance of the underlying literary project, editing of the draft manuscript, and marketing and promotion of the finished work.但这些主宰着出版业的大集团被一群爱钱胜过爱书的人经营着。为了最大化分销渠道准入控制环节的营收,出版商削减了配套务。如今的畅销书排行榜上充斥着以往畅销作品的效仿之作:足球运动员回忆录、名厨菜谱、吸血鬼小说和以女性为目标群体的情色文学。But the large conglomerates that have come to dominate publishing are run by people who love money more than they love books. These support activities have been cut back in the interest of maximising the revenue, from control of access to distribution. Today’s bestseller lists are filled with imitations of books that have aly been successful; footballer’s memoirs, celebrity chefs, vampires and female-oriented erotic literature.这样的出版商不适合新环境。我不知道纸质书在20年后的存在程度。但电子书的销量足以说明,阿歇特或企鹅兰登书屋(Penguin Random House)这样的公司已不再是出版图书的决定性因素。企鹅兰登部分股权为培生集团(Pearson)持有,该集团还拥有英国《金融时报》。Such publishers are ill-placed for the new environment. I do not know the extent to which the printed book will remain extant in two decades. But enough ebooks are aly being sold to signify that being published by a company such as Hachette or Penguin Random House (part-owned by Pearson, which also owns the Financial Times) is no longer critical.影响一本书成与败的是见解的高低、基础项目的执行力、编辑的水平以及营销与推广的效果。What matters to the success or failure of a book is the quality of conception and execution of the underlying project, the competence of the editing, and the effectiveness of marketing and promotion.作者自行出版的新书大多通不过上述考验,尤其是它们往往明显缺乏称职的编辑。但这种情况现在同样存在于老牌出版商出品的许多图书。Most new self-published titles fail these tests; in particular, the lack of a competent editor is often obvious. But this is also true of many titles now published by established houses.某些现有的出版商靠着为作者提供配套务的优势还能兴旺下去。但大多数出版商将开始走下坡路。精明且懂行的作家们(往往在代理人的帮助下)将能够利用比传统版税模式高得多的销售分成,来购买编辑和营销技能。音乐界的教训之一是,营收的天平已从发行权转向现场演出和商品化。类似音乐界在某种程度上已经发生的变化,对作家的大笔预付款项将被针对未来营收流的券化取而代之。图书项目有可能获得风投资金,或许会从大学教科书和从业者手册开始。Some existing publishers will thrive on the basis of their strengths in author support services. But most will not. Savvy and well-advised authors, often helped by agents, will be able to buy editing and marketing skills with the receipts from a much larger share of the sales proceeds than the traditional royalty model allows. One of the lessons of the new world of music is that the balance of revenues has shifted from publishing rights to live performance and merchandising. The blockbuster advance for authors will be replaced, as has to some degree happened in music, by securitisation of future revenue streams. Venture capital funding of book projects – perhaps starting with university textbooks and practitioner handbooks – is possible.读者会怀念传统书店,还有图书馆的舒适氛围。我们对技术过时的蒸汽机车和烛光晚餐有种怀旧情感。改变极少是不折不扣的好事。但签署公开信的作者错过了图书业发展最重大的商业后果:当今的作者置身于他/她应有的地位:负责。 /201408/322920

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